Early Africa

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3, years ago, an early human journey back into Africa - puzuwyzyxo.cf

It has now been eliminated in his district. Education is even more vital. Its government spends more on education as a proportion of its budget than other African countries.


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More than a third of its girls, a big increase, enrol in secondary schools. In Niger the figure is less than a fifth. Curbing child marriage could lower fertility rates by about a tenth in countries like Niger and Ethiopia. Doing so would immeasurably improve the lives of women like Fatia.

Rare genetic sequences illuminate early humans’ history in Africa

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Why we’re overdue to know the brilliance of Africa’s civilizations

A French edition Description et recit historial du riche Royaume d'Or de Gunea was published in Curiously no separate English edition was published until In an English merchant one Richard Jobson sailed to Guinea and penetrated the River Gambia for something like miles to trade for gold. In Olfert Dapper, a Dutch geographer who had never been to Africa published in Amsterdam the most monumental work on Africa to date.

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In his folio work Naauwkeurige Beschryvinge der Afrikaensche Gewesten This most successful work was soon translated into other European languages, in London in John Ogilby published his Africa: Being an Accurate Description Meanwhile literary interest was still taking place in the Congo region.

Giovanni Antonio Cavazzi, was an Italian Capuchin missionary who spent thirty-five years engaged in missionary work in this area. This was followed by a second edition published in Milan in This quarto edition was unfortunately not as lavish as the first edition with the magnificent plates severely reduced in size.


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Meanwhile Michael Angelo and Denis de Carli, again both Capuchin missionaries were writing of their experiences. In the same volume was the work of another Capuchin; Father Jerome Merolla da Sorrento entitled A Voyage to Congo , and several other countries chiefly in Southern-Africk, in the year However it was on the other side of the continent, in Ethiopia that the majority of the intellectual effort was lavished.

Following on from Alvares, much work was done by Jesuit missionaries who were there between and Balthasar Telles edited Historia geral de Ethiopia a Alta published in Coimbra in which made use of the unpublished writings of the Jesuit Manoel de Almeida, who in turn had used the unpublished writing of another Jesuit, Pero Paez. His Historia de Etiopia was supposedly first published in Coimbra in In due to their high-handedness and their attempted suppression of the Abyssinian church the Portuguese and the Jesuits were ignominiously expelled from Ethiopia, several even loosing their heads on the way.

During the sixteenth century several Ethiopian pilgrims made the journey to Rome where they were supported by the church.

As early as Johannes Potken originally of Cologne had set up an Ethiopic type printing press for the production of Psalters and other religious books. An Ethiopian monk in Rome, Tesfa Sion helped Mariano Vittorio publish the first Ethiopic grammar Chaldeae seu Aethiopicae linguae institutiones in ; a second edition was published also in Rome in One man however towers above the rest in the history of Ethiopian studies, and indeed in African studies up to the end of the seventeenth century.

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History of Africa

Although he failed to find these he did meet one Abba Father Gregory who was one of the Ethiopian monks resident at Rome. Ludolf learnt all he could from Gregory on the language and history of the country. An English edition of this was published at London in as A new history of Ethiopia: Being a full and accurate description of the kingdom of Abessinia. It can be seen that after years of voyages around and expeditions into Africa a certain amount of information had been gained. The continent had been circumnavigated and the coastline delineated which was more than could be said for North America, Australia or even North-eastern Asia.

The available literature began to reflect an interest in the continent which was geographical and anthropological, rather than the chronicles of the early voyagers. Throughout the seventeenth century the output of works on Africa as well as the other known areas of the world increased substantially as the English, the Dutch and the French, generally unfettered by political and religious censorship wrote, printed and published and tried not to be damned too much.

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The market for early African material is still relatively slow; most books from the sixteenth century are rare and can be very difficult to procure. A slight exception might be made for the De Bry works, the individual parts of which are often sold separately. The seventeenth century books are more accessible; later editions of Leo Africanus, the Dutch and French editions of Dapper, the second editions of Cavazzi, and the various works of Job Ludolf are all relatively procurable.

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